Open-ended collective lexicon, developed by the various contributors to Spaces of Solidarity's research
Adaptability or flexibility for a space of solidarity is fundamental for creating an inclusive space where many types of people feel comfortable in all different locations.
Acorn Community Farm is an anarchist, egalitarian community in central Virginia founded in 1993. We are committed to non-coercive, non-hierarchical, voluntary associations both within our community as well as within the larger community in which we find ourselves. We are also committed to income-sharing, sustainable living, and creating a vibrant, eclectic culture.
Source: Acorn Community
Alternative economic practices
Architecture of Social Capital
Different non-monetary systems and exchange value from Bitcoin to several time-bank project proposes structures of alternative economies. At the other hand, in the perspective of Spaces of Solidarity, the most related approach is heterogenous economy proposed by economic feminist geographers J.K.Gibson - Graham that supports horizontal community economy and several labor conditions.
Source: Community Economies
Baltimore Green Currency Association
“Baltimore Green Currency Association, a non-profit program of Fusion Partnerships, Inc., was founded in Spring 2010. We are working to help create an alternative economy that will strengthen local businesses, create jobs, encourage the formation of local supply chains, and ultimately provide economic opportunity and increased resilience to communities underserved by traditional economic structures. Our mission: to foster economic opportunity through the administration and expansion of an alternative currency, the BNote, for the communities of Baltimore. As a 501(c)(3) non-profit under the fiscal sponsorship of Fusion Partnerships, all donations to Baltimore Green Currency Association are fully tax-deductible.”
Source: Baltimore Green Currency
Baltimore Free Farm
“Baltimore Free Farm is an egalitarian collective of gardeners and activists who aim to provide access to healthy food for all. We believe that hierarchical systems of organizing are damaging to our lives, our minds and our relationships. In an egalitarian collective, we do our best to create an environment where everyone is valued equally. We value the input of all collective members and encourage honest discussion. Our decision making process is consensus-based and we allow the voices of all members to be heard.”
“The hillside of 3511 Ash St. was Baltimore Free Farm’s first project. In 2010, we cleaned up this lot and used salvaged rocks to create terraced garden beds. Today, this is our community garden space where you can rent space to grow your own vegetables! Recently our hillside has been renovated in an effort to minimize erosion of the hill, come and visit our new sustainable design. Plots are available on a seasonal basis for a sliding scale fee. Acquired in 2013 after a lengthy campaign to raise support and awareness to keep the land we had been maintaining in our hands, we were auspiciously sold the land. The lot is now managed by a guild of folks called Heart and Soil with a reverence for nature and who seek to revisit the lost knowledge of plant medicine… Our other garden spaces Baltimore Free Farm has a space dedicated to growing a collective garden, where we grow food as a team for our own personal use, to generate funds that keep the project going, and to share surplus with volunteers or at our food rescue day. We’ve also built a greenhouse, a compost bin, a tool shed, and a chicken coop. The warehouse located at 3510 Ash St. is where we do much of our organizing. This space is where we hold all kinds of events and workshops for community use, but it is also where we work on creating our screen printed items, canned goods and handmade crafts. Free Rescue Day on Wednesday and Food Not Bombs on Saturday, Sunday and Monday occur either inside or directly in front of this space.
“Every Wednesday members of Baltimore Free Farm go to various produce distributors and grocers to rescue distressed goods: items too ripe to sell or on or just past their expiration date. We drive the 300-500 lbs of produce, dry goods, and bread 30 miles back to Baltimore Free Farm for redistribution into the community. This is a direct action against the endemic food waste crisis that faces our society, which pushes 40% of food produced into landfills to rot with the plastics and other non-compostable goods while millions around the world starve. By simply giving perfectly edible food to people who will eat it, Food Rescue Day is the physical manifestation of a conversation about food waste on a local level. Your donations and ideas are generously welcomed. Food is given away at 12pm every Wednesday, please bring your own bag. Visit Food Rescue Baltimore for information on additional giveaways throughout the city.”
Baltimore Time Bank
“The Baltimore Time Bank is a community resource. The philosophy behind Time Banking is based on the notion of community sharing and human interaction. An elderly person, who knows how to bake wonderful cakes, can easily connect with a high school student who is willing to do some housework. Apart from fostering community development, Time Banking allows neighborhoods to become less dependent on national and world economies. Time credits are not affected by inflation rates or world markets, and are always backed by a group of people whom you know and trust. Anyone and everyone is encouraged to join; from individuals and families, to small businesses and companies. The larger the pool of partners and resources, the more possibilities we have as a community. One of the greatest aspects of Time Banking is the opportunity to provide or receive services that are normally difficult to market in a formal monetary system. Everything from mothering advice to a simple ride to the airport becomes a potential service you can purchase with your Time Credits.
LetsBMore is currently in startup mode. Anyone may register, but we limit participation to people who belong to one of our four member organizations or who want to volunteer to help grow the time bank by joining the LetsBMore Planning Group. If you don't already belong to a member organization, you can join one or ask if a group you belong to would like to join LetsBMore as a new member organization. We are not accepting corporate or commercial business members during startup but hope to add at a later date.”
Source: Lets More Time Banks
Baltimore Housing Roundtable
“The Baltimore Housing Roundtable's mission is to coordinate and integrate the work of BHR members into a unified movement that will promote and facilitate social change. BHR members understand that individuals cannot create widespread social change on their own. Competition among non-profits over limited public and private resources contributes to a fragmented system that does not meet housing need in Baltimore, particularly among those with low or no income. However, as a collaborative, BHR members can pool resources and advocate to implement an agenda of systemic change and realize our shared values and vision. The Baltimore Housing Roundtable has developed a vision for Fair Development in Baltimore. The 20/20 campaign calls for real, annual investment in neighborhood-driven development- development that puts us in charge of our own communities & doesn't price us out. We call on Mayor Pugh to designate $20 million in the capital budget for permanently affordable housing and $20 million for projects that employ community residents to deconstruct vacants and create public green space.”
Between the World and Me, Ta-Nehisi Coates
Coates’ book, formatted as a letter, addressing his own son; but it resonated with the Nation’s young Black population—those seeking answers and validation after Michael Brown’s murder inflicted by St. Louis police. “Here is what I would like for you to know: In America, it is traditional to destroy the black body—it is heritage.” – Coates
“The BNote is local currency – real money that can be used for any local transaction in the Baltimore area. As of February 22, 2016, over 40,000 BNotes have been exchanged into circulation and are being accepted in communities across the city. Over 230 independent businesses accept BNotes, and more are joining the network every week. See the full list in our current Directory, or see all the location-based businesses in one consolidated Google Map here. You can get the new currency at any BNote cambio, or money exchange. These are located at some of our participating businesses, and the list of locations is available on our cambios page.”
Baltimore Roundtable for Economic Democracy (BRED)
“The Baltimore Roundtable for Economic Democracy (BRED) is a coalition of Maryland-based worker cooperatives, advocates, and technical assistance providers committed to building a robust cooperative ecosystem. BRED supports democratically-controlled economic institutions with loans and technical assistance. We prioritize coop development that directs educational and financial resources to historically marginalized communities—especially communities of color that have been excluded from the current economic system. We are part of an emerging national peer network of loan funds to aggregate non-exploitative financing to scale this work. We believe in the creation of democratically-controlled economic institutions, whether as start-ups or through converting existing businesses. We see it as a powerful model that addresses concrete community needs—like living wage jobs with dignity—with an expansive vision of a transformed and equitable economy. Self-managed workplaces create key sites for skill-sharing and grassroots leadership development. Viable cooperative businesses with values grounded in community provide meaningful examples of corporate responsibility and accountability. Community-owned economic institutions demonstrate that Maryland communities can thrive without courting elite developers or national corporations that siphon profit from the local economy. BRED knows that growing a cooperative business ecosystem is easier with support. So we’re part of a national network of similar projects working together to provide peer support and a combined portfolio of cooperative projects to potential investors. Initially convened by The Working World in collaboration with Climate Justice Alliance, Movement Generation, the Fund for Democratic Communities and other collaborators, this nationwide structure has two parts:
+ The Peer Network: BRED can draw upon the skills and experiences of collaborating peer organizations across the country. We are sharing best practices and lessons learned, and co-developing a robust and resilient network to grow the democratic economy.
+ The Financial Cooperative: By aggregating cooperative development loan projects on a national scale, we will create a diverse portfolio that can attract and manage bigger investments from individuals and institutions. When you invest through the financial cooperative, you can opt to spread your investment out across this national network, not only supporting more projects, but mitigating the exposure to risk that might come with investing in a single isolated business. As institutions like colleges and foundations respond to the call for divestment from companies and industries like fossil fuels and the prison/detention industry, it is critical to give them opportunities to reinvest in the local, green, and cooperative economy.
Cambridge Cohousing is a community-designed and -developed housing project in Cambridge, MA. We are a group of people of diverse ages, backgrounds, abilities, professions and lifestyles. We are committed to creating a neighborly and cooperative community in which we know and care about one another. Children can play safely, surrounded by neighbors, and residents know that caring friends are close by. We are committed to the vitality, convenience and diversity that is Cambridge.
Center for Community Engagement
Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis
Three large cities who’s Black communities have been ravaged by gun violence as well as police Brutality. We use these cities as case studies throughout our research.
City of Strangers
The cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values (social practice) employed for a governance mechanism.
Source: Basu, Soutrik; Jongerden, Joost; Ruivenkamp, Guido (17 March 2017). "Development of the drought tolerant variety Sahbhagi Dhan: exploring the concepts commons and community building". International Journal of the Commons
According to political economist Massimo De Angelis, "Commons are a means of establishing a new political discourse that builds on and helps to articulate the many existing, often minor, struggles and recognizes their power to overcome capitalist society."(Angelis, )He defines three notions in order to explain not merely the commons in terms of the resources that we share but a way of commoning, that is, a social process of "being common": the way in which resources are pooled and made available to a group of individuals, who then build or rediscover a sense of community. Food sociologist and activist Raj Patel also focuses of how food was part of social movements and have created different forms of solidarity (Patel, )such as Black Panther movements that organized breakfast for children or People’s Grocery or Via Campesina. He defines commons: "Commons is about how we manage resources together."(Patel, ) But his argument is not only about managing and sustaining food growing and sharing but also about how food-related movements should act in solidarity with other movements. Thus the concept of "commons", as understood here, holds a sensitive position within any given community or public, especially in contested territories or cities subject to the threat of the neoliberal destruction of their built environment. Negotiation and the resolution of conflicting values are key to such commoning practices. As Stavros Stavrides argues, more than the act or fact of sharing, it is the existence of common grounds for negotiation that is most important. Conceptualizing commons with reference to the public does not focus so much on similarities or commonalities but on exploring the very differences between people on a purposefully instituted common ground. We have to establish grounds for negotiation rather than grounds for affirming that which is shared (Stavrides). Furthermore, Palestine based collective Decolonizing Architectureproposes the term “Al-Masha” refers to "common land": "The notion of Al-Masha could help re-imagine the notion of the common today. Could this form of common use be expanded by redefining the meaning of cultivation, moving it from agriculture to other forms of human activity? [...] How to liberate the common from the control of authoritarian regimes, neo-colonialism and consumer societies? How to reactive common uses beyond the interests of public state control?" (DAAR) In the activities of Decolonizing Architecture, the "common" differs both from public and private space.
From this perspective, a practice of commoning is – of being in common. “Commons” is not what we own or share or produce in terms of property, but rather “social relations” that are closely connected to everyday life (Harvey).
In the context of “commons” discussion; socially engaged art or participatory art practices ranging from ecology oriented to urban justice offers methodology and examples of engagement in communities. These engagements create and offer possibilities of social co-existences that are established through artistic methodologies. Thus, practice of commoning partially is a fundamental practice in such engagement in ethical level as well as in searching for social relation for urban&rural justice and solidarity.
Communal land tenure systems
Community supported agriculture
Community Land Trust
“Community land trusts are nonprofit, community-based organizations designed to ensure community stewardship of land. Community land trusts can be used for many types of development (including commercial and retail), but are primarily used to ensure long-term housing affordability. To do so, the trust acquires land and maintains ownership of it permanently. With prospective homeowners, it enters into a long-term, renewable lease instead of a traditional sale. When the homeowner sells, the family earns only a portion of the increased property value. The remainder is kept by the trust, preserving the affordability for future low- to moderate-income families. The length of the lease (most frequently, 99 years) and the percentage earned by the homeowner vary. Ultimately, by separating the ownership of land and housing, this innovative approach prevents market factors from causing prices to rise significantly, and hence guarantees that housing will remain affordable for future generations. Today, there are nearly 250 community land trusts across the United States.”
“Community land trusts play a critical role in building community wealth for several key reasons:
+ They provide low- and moderate-income people with the opportunity to build equity through homeownership and ensure these residents are not displaced due to land speculation and gentrification.
+ Land trust housing also protects owners from downturns because people are not over extended; as a result, foreclosure rates for land trusts have been as much as 90 percent less than conventional home mortgages.
+ Most commonly, at least one-third of a land trust’s board is composed of community residents, allowing for the possibility of direct, grassroots participation in decision-making and community control of local assets.
+ In addition to the development of affordable housing, many land trusts are involved in a range of community-focused initiatives including homeownership education programs, commercial development projects, and community greening efforts.”
Co-op / Coop / Co-operative
Short for cooperative, it is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise.
Source: The International Co-operative Alliance
Cooperatives are businesses governed on the principle of one member, one vote. There are several common types of co-ops (as well as hybrids—which combine more than one type), including cooperatives owned and operated by:
+ The people working there (worker cooperatives);
+ The people buying the co-op’s goods or services (consumer cooperatives);
+ The people collaborating to process and market their products (producer cooperatives); and
+ Groups uniting to enhance their purchasing power (purchasing cooperatives).Groups uniting to enhance their purchasing power (purchasing cooperatives).
Demonstrating this strategy’s vast scope and scale, there are 29,284 cooperatives across the U.S. operating within a range of diverse industries including banking (credit unions), agriculture, utilities, and child care.
Cooperatives play a critical role in building community wealth for several key reasons:
+ They often provide quality goods and services to areas that have been shunned by traditional businesses because they are deemed less profitable markets.
+ They typically invest in local communities. For example, many rural cooperative utilities finance community infrastructure projects, make equity investments in local businesses, make grants to neighborhood nonprofits, and sponsor a range of community-focused events.
+ Since most cooperative members are local residents, business profits remain and circulate within the community.
+ Cooperative membership builds social networks and strengthens social cohesion, which are essential elements of strong, healthy communities, by connecting diverse community residents.
+ Purchasing cooperatives, in particular, help small, local businesses remain competitive within markets dominated by large, national retailers.
+ Worker cooperatives, in particular, create quality, empowering jobs for community members (for more details, please see our page on worker cooperatives).
Is an online platform offering the possibility to post advertisements, which are classified into categories such as housing, items for sale, services, community and forum discussions.
A form of economic growth wher, artists, cultural nonprofits, and creative businesses produce and distribute cultural goods and services that generate jobs, revenue, and quality of life.
Cultural capital can exist in three forms: in the embodied state, i.e. , in the form of long lasting dispositions of the mind and body; in the objectified state, in the form of cultural goods (pictures, books, dictionaries, instruments, machines, etc.), which are the trace or realization of theories or critiques of these theories, problematics, etc.; and in the institutionalized state, a form of objectification which must be set apart because, as will be seen in the case of educational qualifications, it confers entirely original properties on the cultural capital which it is presumed to guarantee (Bourdieu).
“District Six was named the Sixth Municipal District of Cape Town in 1867. It was established as a mixed community of freed slaves, merchants, artisans, labourers and immigrants, District Six was a vibrant center with close links to the city and the port. By the beginning of the twentieth century, however, the process of removals and marginalization had begun.”
“The first to be forced out were black South Africans who were displaced from the District in 1901. As the more prosperous moved away to the suburbs, the area became a neglected ward of the city. On 11 February 1966 it was declared a white area under the Group Areas Act of 1950, and by 1982, the life of the community was over. More than 60 000 people were forcibly removed to barren outlying areas aptly known as the Cape Flats, and their houses in District Six were flattened by bulldozers. The District Six Museum, established in December 1994, works with the memories of the District Six experience and with that of forced removals more generally.”
“The iceberg is an economic representation we use in our action research projects to stimulate conversations about 'the economy.' This image is one way of illustrating that what is usually regarded as 'the economy'—wage labor, market exchange of commodities and capitalist enterprise—comprises but a small subset of the activities by which we produce, exchange and distribute values. It honors and prompts into expression our common knowledge of the multifarious ways in which all of us are engaged in economic activity. It opens up conceptions of economy and places the reputation of economics as a comprehensive and scientific body of knowledge under critical suspicion for its narrow focus and mystifying effects. Everyday people in everyday places (which really just means anyone who is not an economic theorist or researcher) are the principal co-conversants we are engaged with in rethinking economy through action research. What's at stake in these conversations is who and what is seen to 1) constitute the economy and 2) contribute to economic development. In the submerged part of the iceberg we see a grab bag of activities, sites and people. The chaotic, laundry list aspect has an inclusive effect—it suggests an open-ended and ultimately arbitrary process of categorization. Conversations we've had around what to include in an expanded representation of the economy range from a discussion of putting on makeup in the morning (seen as necessary for the performance of a worker identity and thus as 'work') to considerations of the community-building effect of giving. The very process of discussing what's in and what's out of the conception of economy is democratizing, involving people in the practice of 'making the economy' (a politics of discursivity). The discussions help to generate new economic imaginaries and strategies for ourselves, local economic activists, economic development agencies and NGOs interested in economic activism. The iceberg diagram is an explicitly pedagogical version of what we have called our diverse economy framework (see below), a representation that has emerged from more academically oriented conversations with theorists of economic difference. In these academic interactions, what's at stake for us is capitalocentrism, the hegemonic representation of all economic activities in terms of their relationship to capitalism—as the same as, the opposite of, a complement to, or contained within capitalism. Our attempts to destabilize capitalocentrism have included a number of theoretical strategies: 1) deconstruction of familiar economic representations, 2) production of different representations of economic identity, and 3) development of different narratives of economic development.”
Source: By J.K. Gibson-Graham, “A diverse economy: rethinking economy and economic representation.” http://cscs.res.in/dataarchive/textfiles/textfile.2007-11-30.8168238051/file
Creating a space of solidarity requires that all parties involved must show a commitment to being empathic and respectful of each member of its immediate community as well as communities beyond.
A model of living where people who are sharing their dwelling are not relatives.
Healthy produce that is grown within a reasonably short distance from its consumer
Dwelling/houses structured in one night - self-organised housing in the 50s in Istanbul and other big cities in Turkey that received labor migrants from Anatolia.
Go-Go Retread Threads
“Even though I've been in business for awhile now and there have recently been other mobile retailers on the scene, I often get asked what is up with the bus? Short answer is: It's a highly curated and complex creature hell bent on improving and enhancing the style scene in Baltimore and spreading a little happiness along the way by providing vintage and gently used fashion to the citizens of Baltimore and people of Earth. :) I started this little bus-iness or bus-tique in 2010 and it's been a non stop whirlwind of happiness and fashion ever since. I could travel all over slinging my skirts, but what's the point? The best folks on Earth are right here in my hometown. :) NOT LOCAL? DON'T FEEL LIKE LOOKING AT MY FACE? CHECK OUT MY ETSY SHOP THEN!”
Kubler-Ross grief cycle describes how the five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance) are a part of the framework that makes up our learning to live with the one we lost. The ubiquity of this experience allows humans to empathize and bond over feelings of loss.
Anthropologist Mary Douglas in an article entitled The Idea of Home (1991) describes home “as a kind of space”, whose localization is however not fixed: home can be anywhere, and has to be combined with a temporal dimension. For her, home should be seen as an “embryonic community” that is based on solidarity, and cannot be defined merely by its function. In this type of communities, the most important contribution of members to the group is their physical presence and their participation to assemblies, such as common meals. Douglas argues that if a member of the community does not take part to such activities, it is recognized as “spoliation of the commons”.
Horizontal Housing Co.
“Horizontal Housing Co. is a non-stock corporation formed by members of Baltimore Free Farm in 2013. Because Baltimore Free Farm is a project under the umbrella of the 501-c3 organization Fusion Partnerships, it cannot collectively purchase property. The sole purpose of Horizontal Housing Co. is to purchase property for utilization by Baltimore Free Farm members as either gardening space or housing.In 2012, our good friend and Baltimore Free Farm member Paul Pojman passed away, leaving behind a house which BFF collective members lived in but did not own. Working in conjunction with Paul’s family members and NASCO, an organization which helps co-ops and housing collectives purchase property, Horizontal Housing was able to purchase this property and continue housing several BFF members on campus. In addition, Horizontal Housing was able to purchase two lots from the city that are a part of Baltimore Free Farm’s gardening space. Like much of Hampden, these lots were under threat of housing development before Horizontal Housing was awarded the rights to purchase the land and it will now remain part of our garden for many years to come. Our goal is to create an intentional community housing project here at Baltimore Free Farm. We are working to join the Federation of Egalitarian Communities and we hope to be fully income-sharing by the end of 2016. In 2015, we purchased a vacant home and now we are fixing it up! We need your help! No matter your level of experience in construction or power tools, we can use all hands on deck, and we’ll teach you the basics. Are you familiar with Baltimore City building codes? We would love for you to be our consultant! We can’t pay much, but could barter with vegetables!”
A hospital, church, university or other institution within a community to which other programs can attach themselves in order to build a sustainable foundation for operation.
Invisibility and Hyper-visibility
A dichotomy made Famous by Ralph Ellison Invisible Man. He describes the tension created within the duality of Black experience in America between being made to feel both invisible and hyper-visible.
MASS Design The Memorial to Peace and Justice
“The Memorial to Peace and Justice will sit on six acres of land in Montgomery and become the nation's first national memorial to victims of lynching. The structure will contain the names of over 4000 lynching victims engraved on concrete columns representing each county in the United States where racial terror lynchings took place. Counties across the country will be invited to retrieve duplicate columns with the names of each county's lynching victims to be placed in every county.”
Mechanical vs Organic solidarity
In the Division of Labor in Society (1893), sociologist Emile Durkheim opposes two distinct forms of social solidarity. On the one hand, mechanical solidarity is based on the similarities among a homogeneous group of individuals, where social cohesion is naturally made possible through sameness. The individual consciousness of members engaged in mechanical solidarity is close to the collective consciousness. On the other hand, organic solidarity, which arises from the increasing division of labor in modern and industrialized societies at the end of the 19thcentury, emerges from the differences between individuals, who increasingly specialize themselves. This form of solidarity relies on the interdependency between individuals.
Covered by the dust of defeat –
Or so the conquerors believed
But there is nothing that can
Be hidden from the mind
Nothing that memory cannot
Reach or touch or call back
-Don Mattera, 1987
The expression of deep sorrow for someone who has died.
National Museum for African American History and Culture. NMAAHC Contemplation Room.
“The National Museum of African American History and Culture is the only national museum devoted exclusively to the documentation of African American life, history, and culture. It was established by Act of Congress in 2003, following decades of efforts to promote and highlight the contributions of African Americans. To date, the Museum has collected more than 36,000 artifacts and nearly 100,000 individuals have become members. The Museum opened to the public on September 24, 2016, as the 19th and newest museum of the Smithsonian Institution.”
On the right and the duty to change the world
Any open piece of land that is undeveloped with building structures and is accessible to the public. Open space typically includes land that is partly or completely covered with grass, trees, shrubs, or other vegetation. It usually takes the forms of parks, community gardens, cemeteries, public plazas, and playgrounds.
Source: Definition adapted from EPA.gov
Paris Commune of 1871
Planet of commons
Planning and design technique that takes into the multidimensions of public spaces as social, spatial, and cultural assets. The technique attempts such assets to create inspiration and the potential to create spaces of creativity, nourishment, and community cohesion.
Literally art form that combines lyrical elements with narrative to capture life and stories.
Pruitt Igoe Now
“Pruitt Igoe Now sought the ideas of the creative community worldwide: we invited individuals and teams of professional, academic, and student architects, landscape architects, designers, writers and artists of every discipline to re-imagine the 57 acres on which St. Louis' Pruitt Igoe housing project was once located.”
A public space refers to an area or place that is open and accessible to all peoples, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level. These are public gathering spaces such as plazas, squares and parks. Connecting spaces, such as sidewalks and streets, are also public spaces. In the 21st century, some even consider the virtual spaces available through the internet as a new type of public space that develops interaction and social mixing.
Red Emma’s Bookstore
Cyclical reproduction of a resource
“Since 1991, RIWAQ has recognized the challenging complexities of preserving Palestinian collective memory through projects that document and restore architectural heritage sites across the West Bank and Gaza. Harnessing the energy and skills of students, architects, archaeologists, and historians, RIWAQ embarked on the Registry of Historic Buildings, a thirteen year project (1994-2007) resulting in the publication of three volumes that include detailed histories, maps, and photos of approximately 420 villages in sixteen districts across the West Bank, Jerusalem, and Gaza.”
Riwaq is distinguished by its focus on rural areas in Palestine. Founded in 1991, Riwaq's experience in the restoration of rural Palestine shows that there is an urgent need for community and cultural centres for marginalized groups. Since 2001 "Job Creation through Restoration Projects" approved that the restoration work led to a sustainable increase in awareness of the importance of cultural heritage, and led to a higher standard of living of large segment of the population.
Riwaq's projects are not only about job creation, or about the restoration of stones and historic structure, it is also is about raising awareness about the importance of cultural heritage as a pillar for Palestinian identity and collective memory. It is also about creating a space suitable and safe for life and work, and it is about production and dissemination of knowledge.
Ephemeral memorials created for victims and created by the community
A culture of trust and tolerance, in which extensive networks of voluntary associations emerge
Source: Modernization and post-modernization: cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies by R. Inglehart via the Princeton University Press
Social Capital Primer
The central premise of social capital is that social networks have value. Social capital refers to the collective value of all “social networks” [who people know] and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other [“norms of reciprocity”].
Sources of solidarity
Four Sources of Solidarity:
* Shared norms and values
Station North Tool Library
“Time Banking is a creative local alternative to the monetary system. It allows individuals and organizations to exchange their talents and time without the need for formal currency. Every service is valued in terms of a standard Time Credit, where one Time Credit equals one hour of work provided. Time Credits can be saved indefinitely and redeemed in the form of services provided by other members of the community. We will get you started with 5 FREE HOURS of time credit that you can use for any services.” -
The Five Core Values of TimeBanking
Edgar Cahn is the founder of modern timebanking. He noticed that successful timebanks almost always work with some specific core values in place. In his book No More Throw-Away People, he listed four values. Later, he added a fifth. These have come to be widely shared as the five core values of timebanking – and most timebanks strive to follow them. They are a strong starting point for successful timebanking.
Asset: Every one of us has something of value to share with someone else.
Redefining Work: There are some forms of work that money will not easily pay for, like building strong families, revitalizing neighborhoods, making democracy work, advancing social justice. Time credits were designed to reward, recognize and honor that work.
Reciprocity: Helping that works as a two-way street empowers everyone involved – the receiver as well as the giver. The question: “How can I help you?” needs to change so we ask: “Will you help someone too?” Paying it forward ensures that, together, we help each other build the world we all will live in.
Social Networks: Helping each other, we reweave communities of support, strength & trust. Community is built by sinking roots, building trust, creating networks. By using timebanking, we can strengthen and support these activities.
Respect: Respect underlies freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and everything we value. Respect supplies the heart and soul of democracy. We strive to respect where people are in the moment, not where we hope they will be at some future point.”
Timebanking is a time-based currency. Give one hour of service to another, and receive one time credit. You can use the credits in turn to receive services — or you can donate them to others. Unlike money, where some work is valued highly, and other work is given little value, an hour of service is always one time credit regardless of the nature of the service performed.
One Hour = One Credit
It can be hard for us to wrap our heads around this One = One rule because we are so used to regular money which includes price, and where some kinds of work earn a lot while other kinds of work earn very little. It helps to remember that this rule is rooted in the idea that regardless of whether we value what we do in different ways, we share a fundamental equality as human beings. So the point is not to mimic money.
A Complementary Currency
TimeBanking was designed by founder Edgar Cahn to be different from money by focusing on our value as human beings, connecting us through the relationships we create through giving and receiving. TimeBanks are formed when people come together to use TimeBanking to increase our individual and community well-being. The focus is often on exchanges by individual members as they give and receive services to each other, forming a different kind of local economy based on caring and kindness. However, many TimeBanks include group and community projects like tutoring in schools, health and wellness efforts, hospital discharge support, juvenile justice, helping seniors to age in community, civic engagement and more.
The Book Thing
An agricultural system based in a dense urban environment generating produce and/or livestock for consumption.
Urban public space (Ash Amin)
The term “Zapatistas” broadly refers to the group of people participating in the anti-globalization struggle for democracy and land reform in Chiapas, Mexico, organized around the EZLN (Zapatista National Liberation Front). With the goal of disrupting the state and creating a space for the “democratization of democracy,” the EZLN guerrilla forces, in cooperation with indigenous peoples, incited a rebellion in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas on January 1, 1994 (Carvey, 1998). Though the signing of NAFTA is generally agreed to be the most direct catalyst for the rebellion, additional significant factors include “a combination of ecological crisis, lack of available productive land, the drying up of nonagricultural sources of income, the political and religious reorganization of indigenous communities since the 1960s, and the re-articulation of ethnic identities with emancipatory political discourses” (Harvey, 1998).
Subcomandante Marcos, the most prominent and frequently identified member of the EZLN leadership, described the Zapatista cause in the following declaration:
We, the men and women of the EZLN, full and free are conscious that the war that we have declared is a last resort, but also a just one. The dictators have been applying an undeclared genocidal war against our people for many years. Therefore we ask for your participation in and support of this plan that struggles for work, land housing, food, healthcare, education, independence, freedom, democracy, justice, and peace. We declare that we will not stop fighting until the basic demands of our people have been met by forming a government of our country that is free and democratic.
—First Declaration from the Lancandon Jungle
Zochrot ("remembering" in Hebrew) is an NGO working since 2002 to promote acknowledgement and accountability for the ongoing injustices of the Nakba, the Palestinian catastrophe of 1948 and the reconceptualization of the Return as the imperative redress of the Nakba and a chance for a better life for all the country's inhabitants.: To realize its vision, Zochrot will act to promote Israeli Jewish society's acknowledgement of and accountability for the ongoing injustices of the Nakba and the reconceptualization of Return as the imperative redress of the Nakba and a chance for a better life for all the country's inhabitants, so that it renounces the colonial conception of its existence in the region and the colonial practices it entails.
Spaces of Solidarity is initiated, developed and curated by FAST: Foundation for Achieving Seamless Territory and generously supported by The Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation and Harvard Graduate School of Design
Cristina Ampatzidou, Galit Eilat
Malkit Shoshan, Pelin Tan
Visual artist and graphics: